Mohawk’s 1710 Visit to Queen Anne and the Treaties of Utrecht

Mohawk Sachems and Pieter Schuyler hold Council with England’s Queen Anne and others in London

Sa Ga Yeath Qua Pieth Tow, also known as Brant, represented the bear clan.  He was the grandfather of Thayendanegea, Joseph Brant, the prominent Mohawk diplomat and war hero who later founded the Mohawk Village and the Grand River Territory at Brant’s Ford in present-day Ontario

Ohrerekó:wa (Edwin Squire-Hill) and Ratsiáhawe (Bill Squire) and are great great great great great great grandsons of Sa Ga Yeath Qua Pieth Tow.

ho-nee-yeah-taw-no-row-john-of-canajoharie-wolf(left) HO NEE YEATH TAW NO ROW, John of Canajoharie, a Mohawk Wolf Clan Sachem. Canajoharie was subject to Haldimand’s Pledge to the Mohawks on April 7, 1779.

(below) ETOW OH KOAM, or Nicholas represented the turtle clan. He was an Algonquin MAHICANAN


Through the early 18th century, England sought to cultivate alliances with Rotinoshonni ónhwe and in particular the Mohawks who the Queen knew were keepers of the Eastern Door and founders of the League of Great Peace known at the time as the 5 Nations Confederacy.  The mutual intentions were to counter the French Vatican’s disruptive presence in Tkanatáhere (North America) . In the spring of 1710, Peter Schuyler, the British agent appointed for this purpose, traveled with four diplomats to England so that Queen Anne herself and others from the British government could persuade them to continue siding with the English colonists.

Of the Five Nations of the League, the Mohawks not only were the best known to the English, but as keepers of the founders of the League and keepers of the Easter Door, the Queen was keenly aware of the fact that ultimately Mohawk permission was required first in respect of matters of state within the Eastern frontier.  Further, the English knew that the Mohawks held the power to bring further agreements forward – West, North and South, in order to obtain broader alliances.

Though the English considered these four emissiaries to be ‘kings’, they in fact not only held titles, but also wielded significant power at home, led by persuasion, rather than edict – and all at the pleasure of their people. Although other Onkwehon:we people had traveled to England and elsewhere in Europe over the previous century, these Sachems were the first to have been specifically invited by the English monarchy. In return for a pledge to continue the alliance with England, the Mohawk representatives obtained from the Crown government additional weapons and textiles. British missionaries were eagerly promised to counter the destructive influence of the Vatican’s French Jesuits among the Rotinoshonni ónhwe peoples.

3 years later, Subjects were forbidden to hinder and molest any of the Five Nations, their cantons or such others who are friends of same in article XV of the Treaties of Utrecht which ended years of world war, during which time the Five Nations and League of Peace extended from the Great Lakes to the Hudson River and included all of SW Ontario and much of the SE United States.

The Treaties of Utrecht

Marked the start of three decades of peace
on the New York frontier. The treaties
registered the defeat of French ambitions
expressed in the wars of Louis XIV and
preserved the European system based on
the balance of power – both in Europe and
North America.

The European concept of the balance of
power, became a common topic of debate
during the war and the conferences that
led to signing of the treaties.


The Treaties of Utrecht (1713)

1 mohawks 5 nation expansion by 1711

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